Singapore Public Sculpture - A Walking Guide

Singapore Public Sculpture walking guide is a collection of visual art that is displayed around Marina Bay public areas. No admission fee is required.

While you stroll around Marina Bay, it is not hard to find many tall buildings and scenic views over the city. If you pay more attention, you will find that there are several stunning sculptures created by local and international artists.

This is a flexible walking tour that you can customize to fit your preferences. Select the public sculpture that you are interested in and follow this public art trail.

So what are you waiting for! Start wearing your shoes and start your Singapore Public Sculpture walking guide now!

Tips:

  • To complete the full Singapore Public Sculpture walking trail, it is about 8.7 km long and estimated to take about 2.5 hours. So remember to plan your time properly.
  • Be sure to dress in light comfortable clothes and walking shoes. Also, if you can, please bring along a hat, poncho/umbrella and sunscreen. At times, especially between May to June, Singapore is quite hot and humid, and it may be uncomfortable to walk under the sun in the open space
  • Bring some drinking water along with you. It may be heavy, but trust me, it will come handy when you feel thirsty.

How to get to the Start Point:

  • By MRT - Bayfront MRT station (CE1, Exit B, C, D, E) along the Circle Line Extension.
  • By Public Bus - 97/97E, 106, 133, 502/502A, 518/518A, NR1 (Available on Fridays, Saturdays and eve of public holidays), and NR6 (Available on Fridays, Saturdays and eve of public holidays).
  • By River Taxi - Singapore River Cruise, Singapore River Explorer

Public Sculpture

Rain Oculus

Designer

Ned Kham

Location

Marina Bay Sands

Description

This 22 meter-wide large inverted acrylic bowl that channels 6,000 gallons per minute of rain and swirls water in a whirlpool motion into a great spiraling vortex. The water falls two levels high through a hole at the center, creating a dynamic water skylight feature for the retail mall below.

This display was inspired by the ubiquity of vortices in nature, whether at the cosmic level of spiral galaxies, or at the subatomic realm, the work also allows the visitors to contemplate the vital significance of water.

Currently, it has become a large Wishing-Well for many. Many people are seen throwing coins into it. Apparently the target is to get the coins into the hole at the center.

Walking Guide (to next POI)

  1. Head northeast - about 0.1 km, about 1 min walk
  2. Slight left - about 0.2 km, about 2 mins walk
  3. Turn right - about 0.5 km, about 6 mins walk
  4. Turn right - about 92 m, about 1 min walk
  5. Turn right
    Destination will be on the right- about 0.1 km, about 2 mins walk

Walking Distance (to next POI)

 1.0 km

Time Required (to next POI)

12 mins

Wind Arbor

Designer

Ned Kham

Location

Marina Bay Sands

Description

Designed by Ned Kahn. It can be seen at Marina Bay Sands Hotel, Singapore. Ned Kahn is an environmental artist and sculptor, famous in particular for museum exhibits he has built for the Exploratorium in San Francisco. His works usually involves capturing an invisible aspect of nature and making it visible.

The sculpture consists of 260,000 aluminium metal 'flappers' covering the entire western facade, which reflect light and create a shimmering piece of art when the wind blows. Officially opened in 2010, this brand new bridge has an unique modern architecture and has some observation spots, offering good opportunities for taking photos of Marina Bay.

Walking Guide (to next POI)

  1. Head northeast - about 0.2 km, about 2 mins walk
  2. Turn left toward Bayfront Ave - about 10 m, about 1 min walk
  3. Turn right onto Bayfront Ave - about 8 m, about 1 min walk
  4. Turn right - about 0.5 km, about 6 mins walk
  5. Turn left onto Raffles Ave
    May be closed at certain times or days- about 22 m, about 1 min walk
  6. Turn left onto Bayfront Ave
    May be closed at certain times or days- about 27 m, about 1 min walk
  7. Sharp right - about 16 m, about 1 min walk
  8. Turn left
    Take the stairs- about 48 m, about 1 min walk
  9. Sharp left - about 12 m, about 1 min walk
  10. Slight left - about 19 m, about 1 min walk
  11. Slight left
    Destination will be on the right- about 7 m, about 1 min walk

Walking Distance (to next POI)

 0.9 km

Time Required (to next POI)

11 mins

Youth Olympic Park

Location

Raffles Avenue

Description

Singapore first art park features artworks by local youths based on the themes of 'Aspirations for life in Singapore' and also of the Olympic Games.

There is an art park's landscaped maze, a 4.5 meters high sculpture which takes the form of a mountain with a wind-activated figurine of a girl holding a flag with the words 'I want to scale the highest mountain in the world'. There is also a rock wall featuring 18 drawings of Singapore icons and a 'hop scotch' lighted flooring.

Walking Guide (to next POI)

  1. Head north - about 7 m, about 1 min walk
  2. Slight right toward Raffles Ave - about 9 m, about 1 min walk
  3. Slight right toward Raffles Ave - about 22 m, about 1 min walk
  4. Sharp right toward Raffles Ave - about 11 m, about 1 min walk
  5. Turn left toward Raffles Ave - about 47 m, about 1 min walk
  6. Turn left onto Raffles Ave
    May be closed at certain times or days - about 0.3 km, about 3 mins walk
  7. Turn right
    Destination will be on the right - about 89 m, about 1 min walk

Walking Distance (to next POI)

 0.4 km

Time Required (to next POI)

5 mins

Fleur Maritime

Designer

Antoine Poncet

Location

Mandarin Oriental

Description

Created by renowned Swiss artist, the title of this sculpture means 'marine flower', as it faces the sea and is situated on land reclaimed from the sea.

Walking Guide (to next POI)

  1. Head southwest toward Raffles Ave - about 81 m, about 1 min walk
  2. Turn right onto Raffles Ave
    Parts of this road may be closed at certain times or days
    Take the stairs- about 0.2 km, about 2 mins walk
  3. Turn right - about 37 m, about 1 min walk
  4. Walk for 22 m - about 22 m, about 1 min walk
  5. Take the escalator up to the 2nd floor - about 18 m, about 1 min walk
  6. Walk for 240 m - about 0.2 km, about 3 mins walk
  7. Take the elevator down to the 1st floor - about 2 m, about 1 min walk
  8. Walk for 81 m - about 81 m, about 1 min walk
  9. Head northeast - about 3 m, about 1 min walk
  10. Turn right - about 16 m, about 1 min walk
  11. Turn right - about 13 m, about 1 min walk

Walking Distance (to next POI)

 0.7 km

Time Required (to next POI)

10 mins

Continuum II

Designer

Charles Perry

Location

Marina Square

Description

The center of the bronze sculpture symbolizes a black hole, while the edge shows the flow of matter through the center from positive to negative space and back again in a continuum. A small piece of work and interesting one.

Walking Guide (to next POI)

  1. Head north - about 13 m, about 1 min walk
  2. Turn left - about 16 m, about 1 min walk
  3. Turn left - about 3 m, about 1 min walk
  4. Walk for 81 m - about 81 m, about 1 min walk
  5. Take the elevator up to the 2nd floor - about 2 m, about 1 min walk
  6. Walk for 240 m - about 0.2 km, about 3 mins walk
  7. Take the escalator down to the 1st floor - about 18 m, about 1 min walk
  8. Walk for 22 m - about 22 m, about 1 min walk
  9. Head southwest - about 37 m, about 1 min walk
  10. Turn left onto Raffles Ave
    Parts of this road may be closed at certain times or days
    Take the stairs- about 0.4 km, about 5 mins walk
  11. Turn left
    Destination will be on the right - about 0.1 km, about 2 mins walk

Walking Distance (to next POI)

 1.0 km

Time Required (to next POI)

13 mins

Mao Figures

Designer

Zhu Wei

Location

The Ritz Calton, Millenia Singapore

Description

Standing at the main entrance of the hotel, the life size faceless figures wearing Mao suits have a pop-art feel. They were individually hand painted and have been created to look old and worn, like China's famous terra-cotta warriors from the Qin and Han periods. They were mounted at a tilted standing position suggesting a bow, implying that obedience is superior to confrontation in Chinese society. 

Walking Guide (to next POI)

  1. Head west toward Raffles Ave - about 0.1 km, about 2 mins walk
  2. Turn right onto Raffles Ave
    Parts of this road may be closed at certain times or days
    Take the stairs- about 0.4 km, about 5 mins walk
  3. Turn right - about 37 m, about 1 min walk
  4. Walk for 22 m - about 22 m, about 1 min walk
  5. Take the escalator up to the 2nd floor - about 18 m, about 1 min walk
  6. Walk for 190 m - about 0.2 km, about 3 mins walk
  7. Take the escalator down to the 1st floor - about 17 m, about 1 min walk
  8. Walk for 6 m - about 6 m, about 1 min walk
  9. Head northeast toward Raffles Blvd - about 26 m, about 1 min walk

Walking Distance (to next POI)

 0.8 km

Time Required (to next POI)

11 mins

Deva

Designer

Lin Emery

Location

Pan Pacific

Description

This graceful kinetic sculpture turns like a windmill, honoring principles found in nature. It can also described as a 'living' tree that moves with the wind, gleaming and changing with each passing minute, but all in slow motion, so that the effect is exceedingly peaceful and bestows a lovely air of tranquility on the surrounding area.

Walking Guide (to next POI)

  1. Head northwest on Raffles Blvd toward Temasek Blvd - about 53 m, about 1 min walk
  2. Turn right onto Temasek Blvd - about 0.1 km, about 2 mins walk
  3. Turn right - about 0.1 km, about 2 mins walk
  4. Turn right - about 42 m, about 1 min walk
  5. Turn right - about 25 m, about 1 min walk
  6. Walk for 30 m - about 30 m, about 1 min walk
  7. Head east
    Destination will be on the right - about 28 m, about 1 min walk

Walking Distance (to next POI)

 0.4 km

Time Required (to next POI)

5 mins

Singapore Brushstrokes

Designer

Ray Lichtenstein

Location

Ray Lichtenstein Sculpture Plaza, Millenia Walk

Description

The Sculpture Plaza, designed by Lichtenstein, comprises an open pavilion with grass beds and holds his ""Six Brushstrokes"", 1996 series. The collection of six tall, colorful sculptures are whimsical calligraphic renditions of nature, representing a dramatic example of large-scale outdoor art.

The Roy Lichtenstein Sculpture Plaza - Six Brushstrokes depicting giant happy brush strokes. The colorfully comical collection of sculptures were fabricated in Bristol Rhode Island and installed here at Millenia Walk (9, Raffles Boulevard) in June/July 1997. With their stark bold colors, black outlines and playful yet confident strokes, these colossal-size sculptures are distinctively Lichtenstein masterpieces. They are also a highly visible example of outdoor civic art in the grand tradition of Picasso, one of Lichtenstein's key sources of inspiration.

Brought into Singapore only months before Lichtenstein's death, they are a befitting epilogue to his life's achievements and his final wish to showcase his art in Singapore. Admire these final works by Roy Lichtenstein, cause celebre of the pop art world. Six Brushstrokes is a skillful blend of Chinese calligraphic tradition with western bebop' themes of post-industrial nature. Specially commissioned for Millenia Singapore, the six aluminum sculptures of varying heights from four meters to twelve meters depict abstract vignettes of nature, land and seascapes, fulfilling Lichtenstein's final wish to showcase his art in Singapore.

Walking Guide (to next POI)

  1. Head west - about 28 m, about 1 min walk
  2. Walk for 76 m - about 76 m, about 1 min walk
  3. Head west
    Destination will be on the right - about 1 m, about 1 min walk

Walking Distance (to next POI)

 0.1 km

Time Required (to next POI)

1 mins

Soaring Helix

Designer

Philip Johnson

Location

Monument Square, Millenia Walk

Description

The eighteen meters sculpture is made up of 100 identically sized pieces of white marble, with each square block rotating and stacking onto the previous one.

Walking Guide (to next POI)

  1. Head northeast - about 45 m, about 1 min walk
  2. Turn left onto Temasek Ave - about 92 m, about 1 min walk
  3. At the roundabout, take the 1st exit and stay on Temasek Ave - about 91 m, about 1 min walk
  4. Turn left - about 34 m, about 1 min walk

Walking Distance (to next POI)

 0.3 km

Time Required (to next POI)

3 mins

Fountain of Wealth

Location

Suntec City

Description

This is the world's largest fountain according to the Guinness Book of Records (1998). It represents the palm of the 'hand' that is Suntec City, guaranteeing the retention of wealth.

Walking Guide (to next POI)

  1. Head southwest toward Temasek Ave - about 34 m, about 1 min walk
  2. Turn right onto Temasek Ave - about 74 m, about 1 min walk
  3. At the roundabout, take the 3rd exit onto Temasek Blvd
    Destination will be on the right - about 0.3 km, about 4 mins walk

Walking Distance (to next POI)

 0.4 km

Time Required (to next POI)

5 mins

Abundance III

Designer

Sun Yu Li

Location

Junction of Temasek Boulevard and Raffles Boulevard

Description

According to the sculpture, a circle is the perfect shape because it has no beginning and no end. A predominantly piece of work with bronze, this sculpture is an extension of the sculptor fascination with space and form.

Walking Guide (to next POI)

  1. Head southwest on Temasek Blvd toward Raffles Blvd - about 35 m, about 1 min walk
  2. Turn right onto Raffles Blvd - about 76 m, about 1 min walk
  3. Turn right toward Raffles Blvd - about 41 m, about 1 min walk
  4. Turn right toward Raffles Blvd - about 6 m, about 1 min walk
  5. Walk for 140 m
    Take the stairs- about 0.1 km, about 2 mins walk
  6. Take the escalator down to Upper Concourse - about 21 m, about 1 min walk
  7. Go up to the 1st floor - about 0.1 km, about 3 mins walk
  8. Walk for 10 m - about 10 m, about 1 min walk
  9. Head northeast toward Raffles Blvd - about 13 m, about 1 min walk
  10. Turn right onto Raffles Blvd - about 22 m, about 1 min walk
  11. Turn right
    Destination will be on the right - about 58 m, about 1 min walk

Walking Distance (to next POI)

 0.6 km

Time Required (to next POI)

9 mins

Between Sea and Sky

Designer

Olivier Strebelle

Location

Marina Mandarin

Description

The abstract artwork by the Belgian sculpture is said to represent metamorphosis, progress and triumph.

Walking Guide (to next POI)

  1. Head northwest toward Raffles Blvd - about 58 m, about 1 min walk
  2. Turn left onto Raffles Blvd - about 0.2 km, about 2 mins walk
  3. Turn left onto Nicoll Hwy
    May be closed at certain times or days - about 0.1 km, about 1 min walk

Walking Distance (to next POI)

 0.3 km

Time Required (to next POI)

4 mins

The Record

Designer

Cheung Yee

Location

CityLink Mall

Description

This art work consists of 120 rectangular plaques, each depicting a different scene or auspicious symbol that was prevalent in ancient Chinese cities.

Walking Guide (to next POI)

  1. Head south on Nicoll Hwy
    May be closed at certain times or days - about 42 m, about 1 min walk
  2. Turn left - about 19 m, about 1 min walk
  3. Walk for 73 m - about 73 m, about 1 min walk
  4. Head southeast - about 2 m, about 1 min walk
  5. Turn right - about 3 m, about 1 min walk

Walking Distance (to next POI)

 0.1 km

Time Required (to next POI)

2 mins

Water Cycle 2000

Designer

Jonanthan E Minns

Location

One Raffles Link

Description

This mechanical sculpture was based no Feng Shui principles. The flow of water signifies that abundant wealth will flow into the area.

Walking Guide (to next POI)

  1. Head north - about 3 m, about 1 min walk
  2. Turn left toward Nicoll Hwy - about 2 m, about 1 min walk
  3. Walk for 73 m - about 73 m, about 1 min walk
  4. Head northwest toward Nicoll Hwy - about 19 m, about 1 min walk
  5. Turn left onto Nicoll Hwy
    May be closed at certain times or days - about 40 m, about 1 min walk
  6. Turn left - about 30 m, about 1 min walk
  7. Turn right
    Take the stairs - about 28 m, about 1 min walk
  8. Turn left
    Take the stairs - about 94 m, about 1 min walk
  9. Turn left - about 17 m, about 1 min walk
  10. Turn right - about 0.2 km, about 2 mins walk
  11. Turn left
    Destination will be on the right - about 0.1 km, about 2 mins walk

Walking Distance (to next POI)

 0.6 km

Time Required (to next POI)

8 mins

Seed Series

Location

Esplanade

Description

The Esplanade hosts a concert hall and a theater for art performance. Because of its unique shape, the Esplanade has earned the nickname of the 'Durian' due to its resemblance to the exotic fruit. There is a mall attached to the building with food & drink outlets. There are also restaurants and bars outside, next to the Esplanade.

Walking Guide (to next POI)

  1. Head southwest - about 0.1 km, about 1 min walk
  2. Turn left - about 0.2 km, about 3 mins walk
  3. Turn right
    Destination will be on the left - about 22 m, about 1 min walk

Walking Distance (to next POI)

 0.4 km

Time Required (to next POI)

4 mins

The Merlion

Location

Merlion Park

Description

Guarding the mouth of the Singapore river stands the symbol of the city-state: the Merlion, a mythical creature with the head of a lion and the body of a fish. The Merlion park is a good spot for photos: visitors will have a good view of the high CBD buildings behind the Merlion and a panoramic view of the marina with the 3 high towers of Marina Bay Sands in the background.

Walking Guide (to next POI)

  1. Head west toward Fullerton RdTake the stairs- about 80 m, about 1 min walk
  2. Turn right onto Fullerton Rd
    May be closed at certain times or days - about 42 m, about 1 min walk
  3. Slight right toward Queen Elizabeth Walk - about 0.1 km, about 1 min walk
  4. Turn right onto Queen Elizabeth Walk - about 60 m, about 1 min walk
  5. Turn left - about 48 m, about 1 min walk
  6. Turn left
    Destination will be on the left - about 19 m, about 1 min walk

Walking Distance (to next POI)

 0.4 km

Time Required (to next POI)

5 mins

Lim Bo Seng Memorial

Designer

Robert Ng Keng Seng

Location

Esplanade Park, the Padang

Description

He was recognized as a local war hero in Singapore during World War II. He joined the underground resistance section of 136 Force under the Supreme Allied Command, South-East Asia and fight against the Japanese. He was discovered and arrested by the Japanese Military Police in 1944 and subsequent die at the age of 35. In 1954, the Lim Bo Seng memorial, a 3.5 m high pagoda, was officially unveiled at the Esplanade to commemorate the sacrifices he made for the country.

Walking Guide (to next POI)

  1. Head south - about 19 m, about 1 min walk
  2. Turn right toward Queen Elizabeth Walk - about 48 m, about 1 min walk
  3. Turn right onto Queen Elizabeth Walk - about 0.1 km, about 1 min walk
  4. Turn right toward Empress Pl - about 15 m, about 1 min walk
  5. Turn left toward Empress Pl - about 27 m, about 1 min walk
  6. Turn left toward Empress Pl - about 3 m, about 1 min walk
  7. Turn right onto Empress Pl
    Destination will be on the right - about 33 m, about 1 min walk

Walking Distance (to next POI)

 0.3 km

Time Required (to next POI)

3 mins

Dalhousie Memorial

Designer

John Turnbull Thomson

Location

Empress Place

Description

Dalhousie Obelisk is a memorial obelisk in the Civic District of Singapore, located on the north bank of the Singapore River in the Downtown Core, within the Central Area in Singapore's central business district. The tall 'needle-like' monument commemorates the visit of Lord James Andrew, the Marquise of Dalhousie, Governor-General of India (1848-1856). It shape closely follows the famous Cleopatra's Needle.

Walking Guide (to next POI)

  1. Head southeast on Empress Pl - about 33 m, about 1 min walk
  2. Turn right toward Cavenagh Bridge - about 34 m, about 1 min walk
  3. Turn left toward Cavenagh Bridge - about 52 m, about 1 min walk
  4. Continue onto Cavenagh Bridge - about 76 m, about 1 min walk
  5. Turn right onto Boat Quay - about 0.1 km, about 2 mins walk
  6. Turn left onto Bonham St - about 75 m, about 1 min walk
  7. Turn right onto Battery Rd - about 21 m, about 1 min walk
  8. Turn left
    Destination will be on the right - about 14 m, about 1 min walk

Walking Distance (to next POI)

 0.4 km

Time Required (to next POI)

5 mins

Dual Universe

Designer

Charles O. Perry

Location

Raffles Place, in front of Shell Tower

Description

This 18 feet sculpture was made in 1994 and is made from bronze.

Walking Guide (to next POI)

  1. Head south - about 19 m, about 1 min walk
  2. Turn left toward Raffles Pl - about 18 m, about 1 min walk
  3. Turn right onto Raffles Pl - about 63 m, about 1 min walk
  4. Turn left - about 55 m, about 1 min walk
  5. Turn right
    Destination will be on the right - about 14 m, about 1 min walk

Walking Distance (to next POI)

 0.2 km

Time Required (to next POI)

2 mins

Struggle for Survival

Designer

Aw Tee Hong

Location

Raffles Place

Description

This sculpture is situated on top of Raffles MRT station, in between two exits.

Walking Guide (to next POI)

  1. Head north - about 14 m, about 1 min walk
  2. Turn left toward Raffles Pl - about 55 m, about 1 min walk
  3. Turn left onto Raffles Pl - about 47 m, about 1 min walk
  4. Continue onto D'almeida St - about 61 m, about 1 min walk
  5. Slight right to stay on D'almeida St - about 50 m, about 1 min walk
  6. Turn right onto Collyer Quay
    Destination will be on the right - about 24 m, about 1 min walk

Walking Distance (to next POI)

 0.3 km

Time Required (to next POI)

3 mins

Harmony

Designer

Yu Yu Yang

Location

Collyer Quay, In front of Republic Plaza

Description

The fenghuang, or phoenix, embodies the quintessence of fortune, elegance and beauty. These qualities are brought to hear, along with modern technology, to construct this statue of a young dragon and phoenix representing the Chinese character for human (ren). In traditional thought, the image of man joined to, or with the earth represents harmony and boundless energy; the round ball in the statue also stands for this idea. The space within the statue represents the universe and oneness (yi) and the pedestal beneath it resembles the Chinese character for mouth (ko) and so together the entire sculpture represents the Chinese word for 'join' or 'cooperation' (he). In this statue, we see man and heaven joined.

Walking Guide (to next POI)

  1. Head east on Collyer Quay toward D'almeida St - about 46 m, about 1 min walk
  2. Turn left to stay on Collyer Quay
    Destination will be on the right - about 15 m, about 1 min walk

Walking Distance (to next POI)

 61 m

Time Required (to next POI)

1 mins

Momentum

Designer

David Gerstein

Location

Finlayson Green

Description

18m-high 'Momentum' -- a giant red Christmas- tree-like sculpture opposite One Raffles Place -- has become part of the city's landscape. The sculpture's layers upon layers of figures in an upwards spiral motion represent Singapore's high energy and continuous cycle of progress and pays tribute to past and present generations of Singaporeans. The sculpture signals the vision, continual commitment by everyone to help steer Singapore into a vibrant global city.

Walking Guide (to next POI)

  1. Head west on Collyer Quay toward Finlayson Green - about 0.1 km, about 2 mins walk
  2. Make a U-turn at Church St - about 0.1 km, about 2 mins walk
  3. Continue onto Finlayson Green - about 85 m, about 1 min walk
  4. Continue onto Marina Blvd
    Destination will be on the left - about 81 m, about 1 min walk

Walking Distance (to next POI)

 0.4 km

Time Required (to next POI)

6 mins

Progressive Flows

Designer

Han Sai Por

Location

One Marina Boulevand

Description

This artwork consists of six granite blocks shaped into waves and curves to encourage viewers to interact with and even rest on the blocks.

Walking Guide (to next POI)

  1. Head southeast on Marina Blvd toward Marina View Link - about 0.2 km, about 2 mins walk
  2. Turn left - about 29 m, about 1 min walk
  3. Turn right
    Destination will be on the right - about 0.1 km, about 2 mins walk

Walking Distance (to next POI)

 0.3 km

Time Required (to next POI)

4 mins

Breathe

Designer

Edwin Cheong

Location

Waterfront Promenade

Description

The tree like sculpture captures wind and translates the energy into tiny lights. The black patina finish reflects the critical condition that the global environment is currently facing. The olive leaf shaped cups of the 3 trees represent the nations of the world and also symbolic of the Olympic logo.

Walking Guide (to next POI)

  1. Head southeast - 82 m, about 1 min walk

Walking Distance (to next POI)

 82 m

Time Required (to next POI)

1 min

A World United

Designer

Huang Yifan

Location

Waterfront Promenade

Description

This artwork illustrates the unifying spirit of sports through a stylized and dynamic depiction of sportsmen engaging in the 26 sports of the inaugural Youth Olympic Games in Singapore. Through sport, unity and connection between individuals can be achieved and more importantly, peace and harmony between nations.